By: Bayynat editor
There are many conditions for the fasting to be obligatory and for it to be carried out correctly:
a) Islam: it is a condition that the person fasting is a Muslim, so fasting by a non-Muslim is not valid.
b) Puberty: it is not obligatory for someone who has not reached the Islamic legal age to fast, but if he does fast, it is valid and they will be rewarded for it.
c) Sanity: fasting is not obligatory for the insane, nor is it valid if an insane person does.
d) Purity from hayd or nafas: it is a condition for a woman’s fast to be pure from the menses and nifas from dawn to sunset, so fasting by a woman during her period or nifas from dawn to sunset, so fasting by a woman during her period or nifas is not obligatory, nor is it valid is she does, this is even if the menses or niafs took place at one moment of time within the period between dawn and sunset, making the fasting of that day void.
e) Harmlessness: - it is a condition for a valid fast not to harm the fasting person; such harm may take place if the fast causes illness, intensifies as existing illness, delays its cure or intensifies the pain, whether one is certain of this or thinks that it is probable in a way that one fears harm- in all that, fasting is not obligatory, and only the opinion of a competent doctor is sufficient, unless the person is satisfied that the opposite is the case.
- If a person fasts while he fears harm or believes he might be harmed, then if the harm does take place, his fast becomes void; if no harm takes place and the expected harm was one that anyone must protect oneself from, the fasting s also void, otherwise the fast is valid.
- If a person fasts while he fears harm or believes he might be harmed, then if the harm take place, his fast becomes void; if no harm takes place and the expected harm was one that anyone must protect oneself from, the fasting is also void, otherwise the fast is valid.
- If he fasts believing that no harm will take place, then he finds out that the fast is harmful, in this case his fast remains valid.
f) No traveling: - it is conditional for a valid fast not to be undertaking the type of journey that makes qasr in prayers obligatory, so the fasting of a traveller is not valid except of he was vowed to fast while travelling, in which case the fast as a vow not as part of Ramadan, even if he did make the vow if fasting during it. Also, fasting is valid by a pilgrim, performing pilgrimage with Umrah.
- The ruling that a fast by a traveller is void only applies if he knew the ruling - that a traveller’s fast is not acceptable- so if a traveller fasts out of ignorance of the ruling, or some of its details, his fast remains valid; but if he comes to know this during the day, his fast becomes void specifically on the day the knowledge was acquired, but not for the days before that. That said, fasting is not acceptable for a traveller who has forgotten the ruling.
- If the fasting traveller wants to fast, there are two situations which were discussed earlier in “Prayer of the traveller”.
- It is allowed to travel in the month of Ramadan, even if without necessity, and even if to escape from fasting; it is makrouh however.
g) Not being conscious:
- Fasting is not valid from someone who is unconscious if he lost consciousness before dawn and before the intention, but it is valid- rather it is obligatory- to continue fasting if this took place after the intention, whether it took place before dawn or after it. Included in unconsciousness is what takes place due to general anesthetics given in surgical operations; however, it is different to the former as far as the obligation to perform qada’ is concerned, as it is not obligatory on the person who became unconscious before dawn and before the setting the fasting intention to perform qada’, while it is obligatory to perform qada’, while it is obligatory to perform qada’ in such cases where he lost consciousness due to undergoing an anesthetic.
The rest of the conditions will be discussed in the following article.
|Subject: small girl fasting|
|Comment: salam. one of the signs of taklif for girl child is completion of nine lunar years. but our nature, mostly in Nigeria, girls at nine usually are physically and mentally immature. what's their rules regarding fasting, especially if harm is feared.|
|Answer: According to the jurisprudential opinion of the late Sayyed (ra), the girl becomes liable (Mukallafa) at the age of thirteen lunar years, which is equal to twelve years and seven months, or before that age if she happens to have her first menstrual cycle.|
|Name: Hassan Hilal|
|Subject: fasting during travel|
|Comment: Salam Alykoum, I leave in alexandria Egypt and have a important meeting in cairo on sunday and monday,can I fast those two days? I travel to cairo twice or more a month|
|Answer: If you travel at least four times in a month, then you are considered as someone who often travels, so you can maintain your fast; if not, you ought to break your fast.|