By: Bayynat editor
As far as the Sharia is concerned, a state of traveling takes place when the person intentionally covers he distance specified in the Sharia, which is 43.2 km.
There are two ways to cover the Sharia distance, which makes praying shortened prayers obligatory:
a- One-stage journey, which is when the traveller covers this distance in one go.
b- Combined distance, which has two forms:
1- Having the two parts of the journey equal, which takes place when the traveller covers half the sharia distance going to the destination and the other half coming back, or covers more than half in one or both of them?
2- Having unequal parts to and from the destination, such as if going to the destination is 18 km and coming back is 26 km, or the reverse; it is better in this case to combine both the shortened prayer and the regular prayer.
c- There is no difference as far as the sharia distance is calculated if the road is straight, bending, or circular.
d- The start of the calculation of the sharia distance is from the last house in the town at the side he leaves from, and the end is the first house in the destination town at the side he enters from. The internal roads of the towns he crosses during his journey are to be counted in the Sharia distance, unless if he has things to do other than passing through, in which case the distance covered doing his other business is not counted as part of the Sharia distance.
e- The traveller must have the intention to cover this Sharia distance from the beginning of his journey, so if he covers a distance of less than that with the intention of leisure or searching for a missing animal, for instance, then decided to continue to another destination, the distance covered before his last decision is not counted as part of the travelling distance.
f- It is not conditional that the intention is completely voluntary, rather it is acceptable to be abiding by the wishes of others or to be accompanying them, such as the servant and children, provided that the other intend to cover the sharia distance.
g- If a person believes that he has covered the sharia distance so prays a shortend prayer, then he discovers that he is wrong, he must repeat his prayer as long as there is still time, otherwise he must offer it as outside the time. But if he believes that he has not covered the sharia distance and so pray regularly, then discovers he is wrong, he must repeat his prayer within the time, but there is no qadaa if its time has already elapsed.
What are the acts that cancel the travelling state?
a- if the traveller passes through his homeland while covering the sharia distance, his journey has ended and he has to perform his prayers and fasting according to the residentsí rulings. This is regardless of whether he does actually stay in the homeland or merely passes through it, or even goes around the house along the boundary; the leave boundary. Therefore, is he knew from the beginning of his journey that he would not cover the sharia distance before passing through his homeland, then he is not regarded as a traveller from the outset, so he must pray tamam from leaving his place of residence; but if he did not know and was surprised to find himself in, or was forced to pass through, his homeland, his journey has ended and he has to pray tamam and fast, whether he has covered was the sharia distance or less.
b- There is no difference, in terms of the homeland which ends the journey when passing through it, if it is the original, permanent or temporary homeland, even if he passes through it in a time other than the normal time of his living in it, such as the student who is residing in London to study if he passes through it during the summer vacation. However, the place of work which he does not live in does not end the travelling when passing through it for reasons other than the work itself.
c- If he decided, at the beginning of his journey, to pass through his homeland within the distance, then after he has covered some distance on the road changed his mind, or something stopped him from passing through it, in this case he must pray tamam as long as the intention of travel was not set in his mind when he started his journey; he can commence a new journey afterwards. The same ruling applies is he started his journey doubtful and hesitant as to passing through his homeland or not while covering the sharia distance.
The second condition that cancels the travelling state will be discussed in part 3.