638. It is obligatory that one fasts qadha’ for the days of the obligatory fast when one failed to fast. This includes the following cases when failing in the fast was:
a- intentional, in disobedience to Allah.
b- during the period when the person in question abandoned Islam (murtadd).
c- out of ignorance of the fact that fasting is obligatory.
d- for a valid reason, such as when travelling, illness, pregnancy, breastfeeding, the menses or nifas, drunkenness, or sleeping.
e- a result of becoming unconscious by an anesthetic before dawn and before he sets his (fasting) intention.
639. Qadha’ is not obligatory on the following:
a- The non-Muslim who is originally likewise when he reached buloogh as a non-Muslim, even if he might not have been born to non-Muslim parents.
b- Anyone who is totally insane, even if he becomes sane later; also anyone whose insanity strikes him intermittently, if his bout of insanity takes place before he sets out his intention to fasting before dawn.
c- The unconscious person if this took place before he set out his intention of fasting at dawn, or if this took place due to brain damage (causing coma) that occurs during these days.
d- The male and female elderly and the excessively thirsty who cannot not fast because it is very difficult, even if they could carry out qadha’ later.
e- Anyone whose illness continues until the next Ramadan has arrived, even if he could carry out qadha’ later; however, if the excuse was for a reason other than illness, such as continuous travel, he must fast as qadha’ as an obligatory precaution.
640.Immediate qadha’ is not obligatory, but it is better not to delay it until the arrival of the next Ramadan. Also, the order in qadha’ is not obligatory, as is specifying the day that he failed to fast. That said, he can specify if he had days from the previous Ramadan and days from the one before, in which case this is useful in deciding about paying the fidyah or not.
641.If someone could not fast in Ramadan out of illness and remained ill until he died, in this case there is no qadha’ to be carried out (on his behalf); the same applies to the woman in the menses or nifas if she dies before the elapse of sufficient time for qadha’.
642. It is obligatory – as a precaution – on the eldest male child to carry out qadha’ for the days which his dead father failed to fast for a valid reason, if such qadha’ was obligatory on the father, and if he (the son) is able to do so. For the details of this, please refer to the qadha’ of prayers as the same rulings apply.
643.It is allowed to pay someone to fast as qadha’ on behalf of a dead person; volunteering (for free) is allowed as well.
644.It is not allowed for someone on whom qadha’ of days of fasting - which he himself failed to fast - is obligatory to volunteer to fast for someone else (dead), nor to fast a recommended fast. However, it is allowed if he is paid to fast the qadha’; it is also allowed to fast a recommended fast during travelling. That said, it is allowed for such a person to fast a paid qadha’ for someone else or to fast a recommended fast if the obligatory fast he has to carry out is other than the qadha’ of Ramadan, such as a vow, kaffarah or other fasts.