Fatawa >Section One: Taharah -- Chapter Six: Purifying Agents(Mutahirat) 


Section One: Taharah -- Chapter Six: Purifying Agents(Mutahirat) 

As has already been discussed najis things are of two types. The first is that which is naturally najis, and the second is that which has turned najis as a result of coming into contact with an inherently najis thing. However, we now turn to when and how to render najis things tahir again.
1. Restoring Taharah to Things that are Inherently Najis      

Intrinsically najis things cannot be rendered tahir apart from the following:
1. a. A dead body, even that of a Muslim, is najis, as has already been discussed in para. (14)of the Chapter on Najasah. This type of najasah is inherent. However, taharah can be restored to the dead body by giving it a proper ghusl as explained in para. (111)of the Chapter on Rules Concerning the Dead.
Ghusl is therefore one of the mutahirat. As for an animal’s dead carcass, which is inherently najis, it does not become tahir with ghusl or any other means. Accordingly, its hide would not become tahir through any industrial process.
2. b. Should the inherently najis thing be transformed into a completely different thing both in substance and form, such as urine turning into vapor then liquid again and the carcass of a dead dog turning into dust, it becomes tahir.
However, the inherently najis thing remains najis, if no complete transformation takes place, such as turning the hide or hair of a dead carcass into manufactured goods.
3. c. Blood sucked by insects from whatever source, be it human or animal becomes tahir by way of sucking and becoming part of the insect’s blood. The same goes for animals, such as fish, whose blood is tahir, in that if the human or other animal’s blood is transfused with its blood, it becomes tahir.
The same ruling applies in the case of organ transplant, i.e. from a najis source to a tahir one; for example a dog’s eye transplanted in another animal that is tahir.
2. Restoring Taharah to Things 
that Became Najis

2. Restoring Taharah to Things that became najis             
Although there are many ways of restoring taharah to things that became najis, water remains the prime purifying agent.
There are certain requirements for 
the water to be a purifying agent:
4. a. Water should be tahir, as using najis water in restoring taharah is not permitted.
5. b. The properties of water should not change as a result of the washing or purifying process so much so that it would turn najis. This has been discussed in para. (19) of the Chapter on Rules Concerning Water.
6. c. The water should remain pure water throughout the washing or purifying process. Should it change or turn into a mixed type of water before the process is over, the najis thing would not become tahir.
For example, if a dyed garment is washed with water so much so that the water turns colored, before the washing process is complete, the najis garment would not become tahir. However, if the water can still be called as such in spite of a hint of coloring, there is no harm in that.
7. d. The actual najasah should be removed from object that has become najis, either before or during the process of washing. However, there is no harm in any smell, color, or any attribute left in the affected area so long as the very najasah is not physically there. Should doubt creep in as to the removal or otherwise of the najasah, taharah cannot be considered restored, until certitude is achieved that it has been removed.
9. e. Washing should be achieved with water thoroughly covering the area affected by najasah either by pouring water onto it or immersing it into abundant water. One wash would be sufficient to render the najis thing tahir again.
9. The aforesaid condition, i.e. washing through saturation does not extend to the innermost part of the thing that has become najis. For example, should bread, soap, wood, or earthen ware become najis so much so that the najasah penetrated it to the core, it suffices that water reaches those parts, albeit in the same level of saturation, to render them tahir. To achieve this result, the thing soiled by najasah should be left in water or water poured on it for a longer period.
Better still is drying the najis object, then applying water to render it tahir again. For example, dough that turned najis could be baked then purified; drying the dough then turning it into bread would not achieve the required result. 
Liquids that have become najis may be subjected to the same routine. For example milk turned into cheese; taharah could be restored to the cheese by leaving it in water. However, you cannot restore taharah to the milk that has become najis; so is the case with all kinds of liquids, except water. Restoring taharah to water that turned najis has been discussed in para. (25) of the Chapter on the Rules Concerning Water.
There are though a number of cases where taharah can be achieved, but with some extra steps:
10. a. Utensils that have become najis as a result of a pig drinking water from them can be rendered tahir again by washing them seven times.
11. b. Utensils that have become najis as a result of rats dying in them can be restored to their original state of taharah by washing them seven times.
12. c. Utensils that have been licked by a dog can be rendered tahir again by applying a mixture of soil and water first, then washing them once with a lot of water. 
13. d. Clothes contaminated with urine, of a suckling baby or otherwise, should first be washed to remove the urine, then washed a second time with little or a lot of water.
In all the cases where we said that more than one wash should take place, succession of the washes is not obligatory.
Using little water for restoring taharah to things that have become najis hinges on the following:
14. a. The water should be tahir as is the case in abundant water.
15. b. It should be pure and remain so throughout the washing process.
16. c. The physical najasah should be completely removed from the thing to be rendered tahir again. 
17. d. The water must cover all the area affected by najasah; the innermost part of the object is exempt from this condition as is the case in abundant water.
18. e. The little water should be poured onto the najis object to be rendered tahir, not by immersing the latter in it.
Therefore, restoring taharah to the najis object requires one wash only after removing the very najasah; accordingly, it does not need a second wash or other complementary things.
The exemptions to these rulings are the following:
19. a. and b. Utensils used for food and drink that turned najis through licking by a pig or a rat dying in them can be rendered tahir again by several washes like the routine of abundant water, already explained.
20. c. Utensils used for food and drink that turned najis by dog’s lapping can be restored to their original taharah if they are treated with a mixture of tahir soil and water first, then washed twice.
21. d. Clothes or body getting contaminated with urine can be made tahir again by washing them once, i. e. after they have been washed to remove the very najasah.
22. e. Clothes and fabrics, such as curtains and furnishings, that are susceptible to be soiled with najis liquids, such as urine, have to be wrung or squeezed to allow the water to drain out.
23. No allowance is given for the cases discussed in the preceding two paras. when it comes to contamination with the urine of a baby since the ruling is universal insofar as urine is concerned.
24. f. Generally speaking, food and drink utensils turning najis cannot be deemed tahir again, if washed with little water. However, washing could be sanctioned if it was done three times in such a way that each time water is poured into the utensils, then rinsed by turning the water inside to cover all its parts only to be poured out.
25. To render a fixed utensil tahir by washing with little water, you need to pour the water into the vessel, turn it around with, using a hand or any other implement, so that it covers its entirety and then drain it; this has to be done three times.
26. Just as it is possible to render tahir hard surfaces, which do not retain water, so is it feasible to render tahir soft suffices after the najasah has been removed. This could be achieved by pouring water over it in such a way that it fits the definition of washing, albeit the poured water may penetrate deep into it.
Other Purifying Agents
27. Transformation of the thing that has become najis is capable of restoring taharah to it. For example, a najis piece of wood turns to ashes and najis water turning into vapor only to turn through distilling to water again.
28. When in doubt as to the transformation actually took place, you should conclude that the thing that has undergone the transformation is tahir.
29. The third purifying agent is sun-light. It renders the earth and all that is on it of buildings, trees, vegetation... etc. tahir
However, you should remove the najasah first from the object to be rendered tahir by sun-light; the second requirement is that the intended object should be wet. Moreover, drying up should come about as a direct result of sunshine, although there may be other contributory elements, such as wind.
30. The fourth purifying agent is the earth. By earth we mean our globe and all that is in it of soil, rock, sand, stone, plaster, and lime. Tarmac is included in the definition of earth.
However, it is essential for the validity of purifying najis things by the earth, that the following requirements be fulfilled:
a. The thing that has become najis be the sole of the foot or the footwear, be it socks, shoes, slippers… etc, including artificial legs and walking sticks.
b. The najasah that may have contaminated these things must have come about as a result of walking, or standing, on the earth, in that if the najasah came about from other sources, the earth cannot work as a purifying agent in this regard.
The earth being tahir at the outset is not a condition for it to work as a purifying agent; however, has to be dry to be able to work as purifying agent.
Once you rub the najis thing against the earth or walk over it, taharah is restored to it. However, the intended object is not going to be tahir, if you wipe the najasah off by using soil or stone independent of the earth. It is advisable though that the najasah is removed first, using any means for that, then the next stage in restoring taharah to the najis thing should be by walking or rubbing against it.
31. When in doubt as to the source of the najasah, in that: is it from the earth or any other source, restoring taharah to the najis thing by way of earth would not suffice. Water should used to render it tahir again.

3. How can one ascertain that the purifying  process has really taken place? 

32. When in doubt whether or not a najis thing has undergone a purifying routine, you should assume it is still najis, until proven otherwise either personally or by way of a lawful evidence.
33. A lawful evidence could be achieved by any of the following ways:
a. An unambiguous testimony that the disputed object is tahir.
b. The testimony of a person of an unblemished character.
c. The testimony of the person who used to own the disputed object or have right of disposal over it. For example, a servant testifying that she/he has rendered a dish tahir.
34. Should you be in a position where you cannot determine whether a particular thing is tahir or najis, having known that it had been in either state once before, you must conclude that it is tahir, unless the contrary is proven.