Fatawa >Section One: Taharah -- Chapter Five: Najasah 

 

Section One: Taharah -- Chapter Five: Najasah 



1.Types of Najasah                   

Technically, najasah is any kind of uncleanliness (khabath) which may require the Muslim to remove  it by washing before embarking on prayer.The opposite of najasah is taharah.

1. Any object is tahir and should be treated as such, except for the source of najasah itself and the things that become najis on contact with najasah.

2. According to Shari’a law, najis objects/substances are those which are intrinsically najis, in that they did not acquire the najasah through coming into contact with something else which is unclean. 
As for the things at the receiving end, they are inherently tahir objects that become najis on contact with the source of najasah. For example, urine is najis in itself, but your hand which may get contaminated with the urine becomes najis because of the contact. 

We shall be discussing types of things that are inherently najis; we will give the opinions of other jurists in the matter and state our view where difference of opinion arises.

a - b. Urine and Excrement. 
The liquid and solid waste matter passed from the human/animal body is inherently najis, i.e.it cannot be rendered tahir. How this waste matter is passed outside the body, be it through the natural passages or through other means, is irrelevant to the fact that they still be deemed najis. However, there are some exceptions:

3. a. Tahir are the droppings of all kinds of birds be they of the type whose meat is fit for human consumption, such as pigeons, or not, such as hawks. 

4. b. Tahir is the dung or droppings of animals or birds, whose meat is halal such as sheep, cattle, camel, horse, mule, and chicken, provided that they are not fed on excrement for such a length of time that it may find its way into its body mass. Should this be the case, it shall be rendered haraam for consumption; and its waste is also deemed najis.


5. c. Body waste of creatures such as the scorpion and the beetle are not najis.

6. Our clothes may come into contact with a body waste of some sort. If we are not in a position to determine whether or not it is of the najis type, we should treat each case according to its merits, as follows:

a. We should first reach a conclusion as to the source of the body waste. Should we conclude that it belongs to an animal whose meat is not fit for human consumption, we have to assume that it is tahir, regardless of its species, i.e. being animal or bird.

b. We may not be in a position to tell whether the body waste in question belongs to an animal that cannot be identified, i.e. animal of prey or otherwise. In this case, we have to assume that it is tahir.

c. The body waste should be deemed tahir too, if we could not determine whether it belongs to an animal with or without body mass.

7. c. Semen 

Human and animal semen is najis. The semen of such animals as fish and insects, whose blood circulation is not achieved through pumping  [cold blooded animals], as is the case in humans and animals, is tahir.
Man’s semen is quantifiable. However, there is no evidence that women have semen. Accordingly, they are not required to have ghusl of janabah, should they be sexually aroused.

8. Liquids, other than semen and urine, may be passed through man’s anterior. Such secretions are tahir. It is not obligatory to cleanse the human organ from them. You may refer to para (78) of the Chapter on Wudhu for more details.

9. d. and e. Dog and Pig. 
These two animals are inherently najis, in that everything in them, be it flesh, bone, hair, teeth, etc, is najis. They remain najis whether alive or dead. All species of dog are najis, be they watch dogs, hunting dogs, or police dogs.
However, this does not cover marine mammals, such as seals.
10. Animals of all kinds, including fox, rabbit, scorpion, and mouse, but not dog and swine, are tahir. 

11. f. Dead Corpse
As has already been discussed, a given animal, such as dogs and pigs, is najis in itself. When it dies, najasah is compounded.
What we are addressing here is the animal that is tahir. As soon as it dies its body becomes najis. It should be noted, however, that a dead corpse is that which belongs to an animal, which has not been ceremonially slaughtered, i.e. in accordance with the procedure sanctioned by Shari’a law. How the animal faced its death, i.e. died of natural causes, got killed, smothered, or slaughtered not according to Islamic code, is immaterial. That is, it shall still be dubbed dead.

12. Certain groups of animals can still be tahir even after they die, such as fish, fly, and scorpion that has already been mentioned.

13. In the unlikelihood of concluding that a the blood circulation system of a particular animal, reptile, or bird does not function by way of pumping or otherwise, we should assume that its dead body is tahir.

14. Man, like animal, becomes najis after death. A Muslim’s dead body becomes tahir once ghusl of the dead has been performed on it. Please refer to para  (136) of the Chapter on Ghusl.

15. After the unborn baby reaches a stage where it can move, then dies, say by way of miscarriage, it becomes najis. If it dies before such a development stage, it is important, as a matter of ihtiyat, that it be treated in the same way. A dead chic inside an unhatched/hatched egg warrants the same treatment, i.e. it is najis.

16. Those parts of the dead body, which contain life, become najis after death. As for those parts where normally blood does not flow, such as hair, wool, fur, teeth, bone, feather, beak, nail, horn, and claw, do not become najis. Whether or not the animal is of the kind whose meat is fit for human consumption has no bearing on those parts being tahir.
However, this does not mean that such parts of the dead body are impervious to najasah, in that if they come into contact with any juices, or moistness, of the dead body they turn najis.

17. Any part of the body of a living animal gets dislodged, chopped, or falls off becomes najis. However, anything that peels of the human or animal body, such as dandruff, the crust of a healing wound, and acne, is considered tahir.

18. In the same way the feathers of a dead bird are tahir, the egg found inside a dead bird is tahir too, provided that its shell has formed - not necessarily of the hard type.

19. Is the milk found in the breast of a dead animal najis?
A. Should the dead animal be of the type whose meat is fit for human consumption, such as sheep, the milk found in their breast is tahir. If it is of that whose meat is not edible, such as cat, the milk is najis.

20. Is the musk gland found in the male of a type of deer tahir?
A. It is tahir whether it was taken from a living or dead deer.

21. Is rennet tahir?
A. Yes, it is tahir in the same way the wool and hair of a dead animal is.

22. Doubt may arise as to the source of either meat, fat, or leather, i.e. whether taken from an animal which has been killed according to Islamic Shari’a law so that we deem it tahir, or from a dead animal so that we consider it najis.
It should be deemed tahir, irrespective of who owned it, be him Muslim or unbeliever.

23. However, there are other aspects that could attract a different ruling. That is, as a dead body is najis, it is, by the same token, haraam to eat its meat, or say prayer wearing any product made of its hide.

Accordingly, it is not permissible to consume the meat of a suspect corpse found in the possession of a non-Muslim. However, prayer performed using leather from the same source is permissible.
That said, anything of the this sort being handled by a Muslim, giving assurance that they go about trading with it on the basis that it is halal, it is permissible to eat or use. There is one exception though, in that, should it be known that the Muslim trader acquired the goods without proper checking as to their origin, they become haraam to eat or use. More details about what is halal or haraam will be discussed in its appropriate place, especially those of prayer and food.

Should a person be in a position to know that the meat, fat, or hide has taken from an animal that has not been killed according to Islamic code of practice, it is both haraam and najis, irrespective of who owns it, i.e. an unbeliever or a Muslim.

24. g. Blood

Blood is inherently najis, regardless of the source it comes from, i.e. be it human or animal.
However, there are some exceptions:

25. a. Blood of animals who are not known for having a circulation system like that found in humans and other animals, such as fish; it is tahir.

26. b. Any blood retained inside the corpse of a slaughtered animal or its liver; it is tahir.

27. c. Blood sucked by insects, such as flee and louse, is tahir.

28. The clot of blood, which may be found in an egg, is najis, as a matter of ihtiyat.
As for blood that could lace milk while milking is both najis and turns milk into najis. The same goes for the small seed [in the conception process] which may develop into a clot, in that any blood seeping there from should be deemed najis. 

29. Any suspect red stains found on your clothes should be deemed tahir. Should you suspect whether the yellowish fluid seeping from a wound or ulcer is tahir or not, you have to assume that it is tahir.

30. A person could conclude that the stain soiling their clothes is that of blood. Yet he cannot tell if it came from, say, a sheep to be deemed najis, or a fish to be considered tahir. In the final analysis, it should be assumed that it is tahir.

31. A person may establish that the blood found on his clothes or body could be his that was sucked from their body by a mosquito, or that of any other human/animal. Such blood is najis, in which case it should be cleansed.

32. h. Liquid Intoxicants
Luminaries among our jurists considered among things that are najis liquid intoxicants. However, we think that it is more likely that alcohol, and every other intoxicant, be it liquid or solid, is tahir, although liquid intoxicant should, as a matter of ihtiyat, be avoided.
Accordingly, although liquid intoxicants are forbidden, they are not najis. It then follows that things coming into contact with them do not require to be washed or cleansed. From a najasah/taharah angle also, solid intoxicants, such as hashish, are tahir, albeit they have been declared haraam to use.

33. The same applies to grape juice, if it is boiled and turned thicker in texture, yet did not lose its two thirds. That is, although it is, as a matter of ihtiyat, haraam because of boiling, it is tahir. Should it lose two thirds of its original quantity by way of boiling, it should be both halal and tahir.

34. Grape juice may boil or reach that stage by bubbling but not necessarily with fire. It is haraam because it is wine. This is so, because brewing intoxicants from grapes is done in this way

35. Juices produced from dates and raisins are tahir, regardless of whether or not they boil as a result of the use of fire. They are halal, if they are boil with fire or the like. However, if they are left to ferment in time, they are haraam because they will turn into intoxicants, although they still retain their taharah.
In the light of the above beer is haraam because it may lead to drunkenness; it is however not najis.

36 unbelievers are  also considered najis. However, it is more likely that they are tahir, be they of the people of the Book or unbelievers. That said, it is advisable, as a matter of ihtiyat mustahab, to avoid them, especially unbelievers. People of the Book are those who belong to religions, such as Judaism and Christianity, that have been deemed abrogated by the advent of Islam .

37. Sweat

The sweat of both the bodies of human and animal, which are tahir, , even if it is the sweat of a person in a state of janabah or haydh. However, some jurists are of the opinion that sweat could be najis in two cases:

38. a. A person may get into a state of janabah by way of committing an unlawful sexual intercourse. Some jurists have ruled that the sweat of such a person is najis. However, we believe that it is tahir. That said, it is advisable, as a matter of ihtiyat mustahab, not to say prayer with the clothes that were exposed to the sweat.

39. b. Should an animal get used to feeding on excrement, its sweat is najis so is its urine, especially camels. We espouse such an opinion and advise, as a matter of ihtiyat wujubi, that it be advocated.
The ruling passed on such an animal remains in force until it is weaned from feeding on excrement for some time and revert to feeding naturally. That is, during its rehabilitation period, its meat remains haraam and so does its body wastes, including sweat.


2. Things that Become Najis                               Back

Tahir water could become najis on contact with a najis matter. This has been discussed in detail in the Chapter on Water, paras. (8)onward.
Things tahir, other than water, could become najis too on contact with a najis matter.
40. a. Liquid najasah, such as urine or blood, getting into contact with a solid object, such as garment, earth, or body, renders the object najis. However, only the point of contact becomes najis.

41. b. Should the aforesaid najasah find its way to a tahir liquid, such as milk, the najasah permeates the entirety of the liquid, i.e. it all becomes najis.
With reference to both the examples, we have to stress that the difference between the liquid and solid objects is not confined to the surface area of the liquid which becomes najis, but the depth too. Whereas the najasah remains localized when contacting a solid thing unless it penetrates the object, the najasah, which finds its way to the liquid, turns it all into najis.

 Certain things may have dual existence. For example, honey could be set or liquid. Should it come into contact with the najasah while in a set form the rule discussed in para. (40.a.) has to be applied. If it is liquid, the rule discussed in para. (40.b. ) should be applied.

The parameters for determining the material as having liquid properties are:

1. Its liquidity should contain some sort of moistness similar to that of water. Thus, molten gold does not fit this definition; accordingly, it is treated in the same way as any other solid object, such as clothes or wood, contacting a source of najasah, in that only the point of impact becomes najis.

2. The texture should be so liquid that if you scoop some of it, it immediately levels up. If the texture is so thick that if you scoop some of it, the rest of the material is not capable of filling in the gap quickly, it cannot be called liquid, rather, it is set. Insofar as najasah is concerned, the ruling here is identical to that applied to clothes and furnishings; thus, when blood comes into contact with the material in question only the point of impact becomes najis.

42. c. The source of najasah could be dry, such as dry blood or pig’s hair. Should it come into contact with a substance that is liquid, the entire liquid turns najis.
43. d. Both the najis and the tahir things could be dry. Should they come into contact with one another, the ruling depends largely on the dryness and wetness of both of them. For example, if both were dry, no najasah should creep into the tahir thing on impact; also the tahir object would not be najis if it came into contact with the source of najasah, should there be slight wetness of the type that does not spread; if, however, one or both the objects were moist with the type of moisture that spreads on contact, the point of impact of the tahir object would become najis.

In short, the spread of najasah from any source to the tahir object depends on two main factors, the first is the contact and the second the presence of wetness.

44. If, according to the aforesaid cases, a tahir object became najis and the latter came into contact with another tahir object, would it render it najis, and how far would the chain of najasah go on?
A. The tahir object becomes najis, if it meets with the najasah directly, or through a second medium only, i.e. if there were more than one medium, no najasah would befall the tahir object. 
It is noteworthy, though, that if the first medium, which turned najis, was liquid, it affects the second medium and turns it najis too. If it was solid, it would turn it najis as well, as a matter of obligatory precaution. That is, there is no difference between the liquid and the solid second object, in that they are both affected by the najasah. The third object should not be rendered najis in all circumstances. 

Examples:

1. Suppose the floor of a room became najis. On walking with wet feet on the floor, your feet became najis. You stepped on a rug while your feet were still wet. In the final analysis, your feet were najis, as a matter of obligatory precaution, because there is only one medium, of the solid type, that separates them from the original najasah, i.e. the floor. As for the rug, it should not be najis because there are two media separating it from the original najasah, i.e. the floor and the feet, and none of which is liquid. 

2. Najis water was spilt on the floor. Suppose you stepped on the floor while it was still wet. Needless to say that the floor has become najis as a result of the secondary source of najasah of the liquid type. Two media separates your najis feet, i.e. the liquid water and the floor. However, although  your feet is separated by two media, they are ruled najis , because one of them is a liquid. 


Rules Dealing with Doubting the Spread of Najasah               

45. In the event of doubting the spread, or otherwise, of najasah to a tahir object, you should not pay attention if you did not know whether or not the original source was najis. However, you should be able to ascertain that original source had become najis on contact by adopting the following legal criteria:

a. The availability of a tangible evidence.

b. The testimony of a trusted person… Whether the tahir object was in their possession or not is irrelevant.

c. The testimony of the owner of the object. Should they say that it was najis, it should be treated as such, regardless of the way they acquired the object, even if it was maghsoub; Of no effect too is their being adult or close to adulthood, and untrustworthy.

46. The persons may be in a position to tell that the tahir object could have come into contact with a najis object, yet they are not sure that wetness was involved. In this case, they should assume it is tahir. Moreover, even if they knew that either or both objects had some sort of wetness and that when the contact between them took place while there was no wetness, they should assume the object is tahir.

Conversely, the person should conclude, either directly or indirectly - through legal proof, that the object became najis as a result of the presence of wetness at the time of contact.

47. In the event of doubt arising about najasah taking place, it is not obligatory that the person should enquire or check. They should regard the suspected object as tahir until proven otherwise, i.e. either directly or indirectly. Even if, after checking, they think that najasah had occurred, they should not rely on this until they become absolutely certain that najasah did really occur.


3. Rules Concerning Najasah                           Back

Among the rules governing najasah Shari’a has stipulated are the following:
a. Taharah is a Condition for Performing Prayer

48. The most important of these rules is that both the body and the clothes of the worshipper, intending to perform compulsory or voluntary prayer, must be tahir. The same should be observed when performing precautionary ruku and the parts of prayer that have been missed. However, taharah is not a condition for performing sajdatay-as-sahu, adhan, iqamah, or supplication after prayer. Yet, one should observe taharah voluntarily.
There are though exceptions to saying prayer with najasah; these will be discussed in para. (75) and thereafter.

Accordingly, if any part of the person’s body or clothes becomes najis, they should hasten to render it tahir again or change it and wear another garment that is tahir.

49. Should the body or parts thereof become najis and means for rendering it tahir were not available, prayer should be said there and then. This is so because prayer cannot be waived for any reason. However, one should use whatever water available to render all the parts, or some of them, that were affected by najasah, tahir where possible.
The same should apply to the clothes, especially where there is no other garment available to perform prayer with.

50.Where najasah affects both the body and clothes, rendering the body tahir should take precedence over clothes.

51. Should the najasah be found in two places of either your clothes or body, and there be not enough water to clean both, the bigger affected spot must be cleaned first. If they were of the same magnitude, the choice of cleaning either is yours.

52. Should not there be enough water for performing both the wudhu and removing the najasah from one’s body, removing the najasah should come first; tayammum should be the alternative. This has already been discussed in para. ( 11)of the Chapter on Tayamum.

53. Suppose a person has two garments and one of which became najis. However, it was not feasible to tell which one was tahir. What should they do?
A. Praying with either is not good enough, unless it is rendered clean and tahir. If not, prayer must be performed twice, one with each of the two garments.

54. Whoever knowingly perform prayer while their body or clothes are najis, the prayer is batil. This is so,even  if they were unaware that taharah, of both the body and clothes, is conditional to saying prayer.

55. A person may have said prayer in the belief that he was in a state of taharah. After he has finished prayer, he could trace some najasah; he needs not worry, in that his prayer is in order and that he is not required to repeat it, even if there was still time for saying it. 

Indeed, neither the knowledge of the person that he was tahir when he embarked on the prayer, nor the belief that he took necessary action to restore taharah to the affected area/s prior to prayer, have any bearing on the end result, as outlined in the preceding paragraph. 

Furthermore, a person may harbor a doubt that either his body or clothes were najis. He then concludes that they were tahir in the light of the preceding para. (47). If, after having said prayer, he found out that he was najis, he needs not worry for his prayer shall be deemed valid. 

56. Should a person be aware that either his body or clothes were najis, and forgot about it and said prayer, such a prayer is batil. If he remembers while there is still time for prayer, he should hasten to perform it; otherwise, he should say it by way of qadha’.

57. While praying, a person realized that the clothes he was wearing were najis, even before embarking on prayer. His prayer is batil; accordingly he should cut it short, render his clothes tahir and resume prayer.

However, should the person be aware, while performing prayer, that his clothes were najis before embarking on prayer, yet he was not aware of this when he embarked on it, he should, time permitting and as a matter of obligatory ihtiyat, resume prayer with taharah.
58. Should the person who becomes aware during prayer that his clothes were najis before he started prayer, he must, if time was short for repeating it, hasten to clean or change his clothes while performing prayer. That said, he should observe the decorum of prayer; otherwise, he should continue his prayer with the najis clothes. However, in both cases, it is mustahab, as a matter of ihtiyat, to perform prayer by way of qadha’.

59. a. While praying a person’s body or clothes may become najis. Should he know of the incident, he must hasten to restore taharah to the affected part of his body or clothes or change the latter and resume prayer.

b. If this is not feasible due to, for example, doing that which invalidates prayer, such as talking or creating a long gap, he should cut short their prayer, restore taharah and start afresh. 

c. If either action is not possible for fear of prayer’s time running out, even for one ruka’a, he should carry on with the prayer, which will then be deemed valid. 
However, where time is available even for just one ruka’a, it is obligatory, on the person offering the prayer to resort to one of the two courses of action in (a)and (b), circumstances permitting, to guarantee that one ruka’a falls within the appointed time of prayer.

60. The same must be applied in the event of a person realizing, during prayer, that najasah has contaminated either their his body or clothes, without his being able to pin point the actual time of najasah occurring, i.e. before prayer or after starting it. He should conclude that it occurred during prayer.

b. The spot of Sujood has to be Tahir

61. It is a prerequisite that the spot where you place your forehead for prostration in prayer - i.e. that area where the actual contact with the forehead takes place - be it earth, paper, wood, etc., has to be tahir .

 62. If performing sujood on something tahir is not feasible, doing so on something not tahir is allowed.

63. Should a person realize, after having finished his prayer, that he performed sujood on something not tahir, his prayer shall be in order, i.e. he does not have to repeat it. The same applies if the mistake is discovered immediately after lifting the head from sujood.


c. Using Najis Things                                  

64. Eating or drinking najis things or substances is not allowed; this will be elaborated later on. However, there may be a case for making use of them outside the remit of prayer, food, and drink.


d. Selling Najis Things                                  

65. Liquid substances that become najis can be sold and bought so long as they can be of use from a Shari’a perspective as well as custom. An example of this is oil used for medicine.
As for non-liquid based objects/substances, which may become najis, there is no doubt that it is permissible to trade in them, for the simple reason that taharah can be restored to them.
Things that are inherently najis cannot be traded in. For example, you cannot sell alcohol; and although you can sell pigs to non-Muslims, who allow their consumption, shying away from it, as a matter of ihtiyat, is advisable. It is not permissible to trade in dogs, unless they are trained for hunting, for example. It is permissible to trade in other things so long as there is benefit in them. 
That said, it is permissible to trade in other types of merchandise, provided that they have legitimate benefits.

e. Non-permissibility of Defiling Mosques                          

66. Desecrating any mosque is not allowed. If found, any najasah should be removed immediately, as a matter of wajib kifa’ie.
Not permissible too is bringing inside the mosque articles, or animals, that are inherently najis, such as dogs.

67. The extent of non-permissibility of any act of sacrilege covers the mosque’s floor, walls, and all building material and fittings, such as windows and doors; furnishings and the pulpit. Other fixtures and chattel that have been donated to the mosque by way of endowment covenant are also covered. However, the obligation, by way of wajib kifa’ie, to restore taharah to the defiled places is confined to the building structure, i.e. it does not extend to the fixtures, fittings, and other items of movable property.

68. Should the mosque or its contents become najis by the action of a particular person, he must hasten to render the place tahir again, because they have more responsibility for rectifying the situation. However, this does not waive the public duty (wajib kifa’ie ) of the others.

69. The rules pertaining to the defiling of mosques so far discussed apply to the holy shrines.

70. Also, it is not permissible to desecrate the Holy Qur’an. Should it become najis, one should hasten to remove the najasah from its print, paper, and cover.


f. Saying Prayer While Still Bearing Najasah                     


A person performing prayer is allowed to bear the following types of najasah :

71. a. Blood and pus resulting from cuts and ulcers. Although they are najis, yet you can say prayer with the presence of such najasah so long as the injury has not healed. There is no limit to the quantity of such blood or pus, and irrespective of its source, i.e. be it in an exposed area of the body or an internal injury or ailment.

The license to overlook such blood is predicated on the difficulty to remove the source of najasah or changing one’s clothes. The yardstick of determining this is what is widely believed as difficult and untenable. If there was such a consensus, even the odd one who can manage to change their clothes to tahir ones without difficulty cannot be allowed to do so.

However, it is not obligatory on the person posed with such a problem to take necessary steps to stop the blood or pus spreading to their clothes so long as this type of najasah is allowed. Ointments and other medications used in the recovery process, as well as sweat, are covered by the same ruling.

Should doubt about the nature of any blood found on the body or clothes arise, it is obligatory to render the affected place tahir.
A person may not be in a position to tell whether the injury or ulceration in their body had healed. What should they do if they still detect oozing of blood or pus produced in an infected wound in the body?
A. They should assume that the injury is still unhealed; accordingly, they are not obliged to render the affected area tahir, until they are absolutely certain that the injury has completely healed.

72. b. Any area stained with blood which is less than the size of one dirham shari’i (the square area of one part of an average male’s index finger) is allowed in, i.e. without removing it, provided that it fulfills the following requirements:

1. The blood should not be that of a dog or a pig that are inherently najis.

2. It should not be that of an animal whose flesh is not allowed for consumption, such as  a hawk, as a matter of ihtiyat.

3. It should not be that of haydh, istihadha, or nifas.

4. It should not be that of an animal’s dead corpse.
Should the stains of blood spread over a wider area of the person who is performing prayer, the total area should be the yardstick, in that the stains must be added up; if in total, they be equal to the size of dirham shari’i, it must be concluded that they are not allowed; should the total be less, prayer can be accepted.

Suppose that the little blood, which is less than the quantity, allowed by law penetrated to the other side of the garment or to another piece of clothing, what would the worshipper do?

A. If the penetration was confined to only one garment, it is allowed. Should it spread to a second garment, the total area of the stains on both the garments should be taken into account; if both the stains reach the target of dirham shari’i, prayer is not allowed with such soiled clothes. This is so, irrespective of whether the secondary staining occurred to a separate garment or to the lining of the original garment. Should a little amount of water become najis as a result of blood finding its way to it, and a drop of this water turned najis and soiled the clothes of a person performing prayer, they are not allowed to say prayer with the soiled clothes, even if it was less than the area of a dirham shari’i. This is so because the license is confined to blood.

In the event of doubt arising about the size of the stain as to whether or not it amounts to the level allowed, prayer should be in order irrespective. This is so, even if the person concerned found out to the contrary after they have finished their prayer, in that they are not required to repeat it, albeit there was still time for saying it afresh.

73. c. Najis items of clothing and jewelry, of the sizes which are not capable of covering one’s private parts, such as socks, head cap, ring, bracelet can be worn during prayer. However, the following clothing items are exempt of this allowance: 

1. Garments, such as those made of a dead corpse’s hide.

2. Garments soiled with the body waste of an animal whose flesh is not allowed for consumption, especially where the najasah can still be seen. The same goes for the garment hosting parts of such an animal. Prayer performed with such soiled items of clothing is batil, not only because of the najasah but also for the necessity to remove the waste and parts of those animals from the clothes.

3. Garments made of the hair of such forbidden animals such as dog and pig cannot be worn during prayer. Indeed, prayer said with the worshipper wearing any garment made of, say, the fur of a wolf, whose flesh is not halal to eat, cannot be sanctioned.

74. d. Things that are carried during prayer which could be either soiled with najasah or are inherently najis.

As for the article soiled with najasah, it is covered by the allowance, and thus a person is allowed to carry it in prayer. This is so, even if it was of the type with which can be performed, such as a big handkerchief, let alone that which prayer cannot be performed with.
That which is inherently najis can also be tolerated, even if it was part of a dead carcass, provided that carrying it would not entail its coming into direct contact with the worshipper’s body or clothes.