Fatawa >Section One: Taharah -- Chapter Five: Najasah
Section One: Taharah -- Chapter Five: Najasah
1.Types of Najasah
Technically, najasah is any kind of uncleanliness (khabath)
which may require the Muslim to remove
it by washing before embarking on prayer.The opposite of najasah
1. Any object is tahir and should be treated
as such, except for the source of najasah itself and the things
that become najis on contact with najasah.
2. According to Shari’a law, najis
objects/substances are those which are intrinsically najis, in
that they did not acquire the najasah through coming into
contact with something else which is unclean.
As for the things at the receiving end, they are inherently tahir
objects that become najis on contact with the source of najasah.
For example, urine is najis in itself, but your hand which may
get contaminated with the urine becomes najis because of the
We shall be discussing types of things that are
inherently najis; we will give the opinions of other jurists in
the matter and state our view where difference of opinion arises.
a - b. Urine and Excrement.
The liquid and solid waste matter passed from the human/animal body is
inherently najis, i.e.it cannot be rendered tahir. How
this waste matter is passed outside the body, be it through the
natural passages or through other means, is irrelevant to the fact
that they still be deemed najis. However, there are some
3. a. Tahir are the droppings of all kinds of
birds be they of the type whose meat is fit for human consumption,
such as pigeons, or not, such as hawks.
4. b. Tahir is the dung or droppings of
animals or birds, whose meat is halal such as sheep, cattle,
camel, horse, mule, and chicken, provided that they are not fed on
excrement for such a length of time that it may find its way into its
body mass. Should this be the case, it shall be rendered haraam
for consumption; and its waste is also deemed najis.
5. c. Body waste of creatures such as the scorpion and the beetle are
6. Our clothes may come
into contact with a body waste of some sort. If we are not in a
position to determine whether or not it is of the najis type,
we should treat each case according to its merits, as follows:
a. We should first reach
a conclusion as to the source of the body waste. Should we conclude
that it belongs to an animal whose meat is not fit for human
consumption, we have to assume that it is tahir, regardless of
its species, i.e. being animal or bird.
b. We may not be in a
position to tell whether the body waste in question belongs to an
animal that cannot be identified, i.e. animal of prey or otherwise. In
this case, we have to assume that it is tahir.
c. The body waste should
be deemed tahir too, if we could not determine whether it
belongs to an animal with or without body mass.
7. c. Semen
Human and animal semen
is najis. The semen of such animals as fish and insects, whose
blood circulation is not achieved through pumping
[cold blooded animals], as is the case in humans and animals,
Man’s semen is quantifiable. However, there is no evidence that
women have semen. Accordingly, they are not required to have ghusl
of janabah, should they be sexually aroused.
8. Liquids, other than
semen and urine, may be passed through man’s anterior. Such
secretions are tahir. It is not obligatory to cleanse the human
organ from them. You may refer to para (78) of the Chapter on Wudhu
for more details.
9. d. and e. Dog and
These two animals are inherently najis, in that everything in
them, be it flesh, bone, hair, teeth, etc, is najis. They
remain najis whether alive or dead. All species of dog are najis,
be they watch dogs, hunting dogs, or police dogs.
However, this does not cover marine mammals, such as seals.
10. Animals of all kinds, including fox, rabbit, scorpion, and mouse,
but not dog and swine, are tahir.
11. f. Dead Corpse
As has already been discussed, a given animal, such as dogs and pigs,
is najis in itself. When it dies, najasah is compounded.
What we are addressing here is the animal that is tahir. As
soon as it dies its body becomes najis. It should be noted,
however, that a dead corpse is that which belongs to an animal, which
has not been ceremonially slaughtered, i.e. in accordance with the
procedure sanctioned by Shari’a law. How the animal faced its death,
i.e. died of natural causes, got killed, smothered, or slaughtered not
according to Islamic code, is immaterial. That is, it shall still be
12. Certain groups of
animals can still be tahir even after they die, such as fish,
fly, and scorpion that has already been mentioned.
13. In the unlikelihood
of concluding that a the blood circulation system of a particular
animal, reptile, or bird does not function by way of pumping or
otherwise, we should assume that its dead body is tahir.
14. Man, like animal,
becomes najis after death. A Muslim’s dead body becomes tahir
once ghusl of the dead has been performed on it. Please refer
to para (136) of the
Chapter on Ghusl.
15. After the unborn
baby reaches a stage where it can move, then dies, say by way of
miscarriage, it becomes najis. If it dies before such a
development stage, it is important, as a matter of ihtiyat,
that it be treated in the same way. A dead chic inside an
unhatched/hatched egg warrants the same treatment, i.e. it is najis.
16. Those parts of the
dead body, which contain life, become najis after death. As for
those parts where normally blood does not flow, such as hair, wool,
fur, teeth, bone, feather, beak, nail, horn, and claw, do not become najis.
Whether or not the animal is of the kind whose meat is fit for human
consumption has no bearing on those parts being tahir.
However, this does not mean that such parts of the dead body are
impervious to najasah, in that if they come into contact with
any juices, or moistness, of the dead body they turn najis.
17. Any part of the body
of a living animal gets dislodged, chopped, or falls off becomes najis.
However, anything that peels of the human or animal body, such as
dandruff, the crust of a healing wound, and acne, is considered tahir.
18. In the same way the
feathers of a dead bird are tahir, the egg found inside a dead
bird is tahir too, provided that its shell has formed - not
necessarily of the hard type.
19. Is the milk found in
the breast of a dead animal najis?
A. Should the dead animal be of the type whose meat is fit for human
consumption, such as sheep, the milk found in their breast is tahir.
If it is of that whose meat is not edible, such as cat, the milk is najis.
20. Is the musk gland
found in the male of a type of deer tahir?
A. It is tahir whether it was taken from a living or dead deer.
21. Is rennet tahir?
A. Yes, it is tahir in the same way the wool and hair of a dead
22. Doubt may arise as
to the source of either meat, fat, or leather, i.e. whether taken from
an animal which has been killed according to Islamic Shari’a law so
that we deem it tahir, or from a dead animal so that we
consider it najis.
It should be deemed tahir, irrespective of who owned it, be him
Muslim or unbeliever.
23. However, there are
other aspects that could attract a different ruling. That is, as a
dead body is najis, it is, by the same token, haraam to
eat its meat, or say prayer wearing any product made of its hide.
Accordingly, it is not
permissible to consume the meat of a suspect corpse found in the
possession of a non-Muslim. However, prayer performed using leather
from the same source is permissible.
That said, anything of the this sort being handled by a Muslim, giving
assurance that they go about trading with it on the basis that it is halal,
it is permissible to eat or use. There is one exception though, in
that, should it be known that the Muslim trader acquired the goods
without proper checking as to their origin, they become haraam
to eat or use. More details about what is halal or haraam
will be discussed in its appropriate place, especially those of prayer
Should a person be in a
position to know that the meat, fat, or hide has taken from an animal
that has not been killed according to Islamic code of practice, it is
both haraam and najis, irrespective of who owns it, i.e.
an unbeliever or a Muslim.
24. g. Blood
Blood is inherently najis,
regardless of the source it comes from, i.e. be it human or animal.
However, there are some exceptions:
25. a. Blood of animals
who are not known for having a circulation system like that found in
humans and other animals, such as fish; it is tahir.
26. b. Any blood
retained inside the corpse of a slaughtered animal or its liver; it is
27. c. Blood sucked by
insects, such as flee and louse, is tahir.
28. The clot of blood,
which may be found in an egg, is najis, as a matter of ihtiyat.
As for blood that could lace milk while milking is both najis
and turns milk into najis. The same goes for the small seed [in
the conception process] which may develop into a clot, in that any
blood seeping there from should be deemed najis.
29. Any suspect red
stains found on your clothes should be deemed tahir. Should you
suspect whether the yellowish fluid seeping from a wound or ulcer is tahir
or not, you have to assume that it is tahir.
30. A person could
conclude that the stain soiling their clothes is that of blood. Yet he
cannot tell if it came from, say, a sheep to be deemed najis,
or a fish to be considered tahir. In the final analysis, it
should be assumed that it is tahir.
31. A person may
establish that the blood found on his clothes or body could be his
that was sucked from their body by a mosquito, or that of any other
human/animal. Such blood is najis, in which case it should be
32. h. Liquid
Luminaries among our jurists considered among things that are najis
liquid intoxicants. However, we think that it is more likely that
alcohol, and every other intoxicant, be it liquid or solid, is tahir,
although liquid intoxicant should, as a matter of ihtiyat, be
Accordingly, although liquid intoxicants are forbidden, they are not najis.
It then follows that things coming into contact with them do not
require to be washed or cleansed. From a najasah/taharah
angle also, solid intoxicants, such as hashish, are tahir,
albeit they have been declared haraam to use.
33. The same applies to
grape juice, if it is boiled and turned thicker in texture, yet did
not lose its two thirds. That is, although it is, as a matter of ihtiyat,
haraam because of boiling, it is tahir. Should it lose
two thirds of its original quantity by way of boiling, it should be
both halal and tahir.
34. Grape juice may boil
or reach that stage by bubbling but not necessarily with fire. It is haraam
because it is wine. This is so, because brewing intoxicants from
grapes is done in this way
35. Juices produced from
dates and raisins are tahir, regardless of whether or not they
boil as a result of the use of fire. They are halal, if they
are boil with fire or the like. However, if they are left to ferment
in time, they are haraam because they will turn into
intoxicants, although they still retain their taharah.
In the light of the above beer is haraam because it may lead to
drunkenness; it is however not najis.
36 unbelievers are
also considered najis. However, it is more likely that
they are tahir, be they of the people of the Book or
unbelievers. That said, it is advisable, as a matter of ihtiyat mustahab, to avoid them, especially unbelievers. People of the
Book are those who belong to religions, such as Judaism and
Christianity, that have been deemed abrogated by the advent of Islam .
The sweat of both the
bodies of human and animal, which are tahir, , even if it is
the sweat of a person in a state of janabah or haydh.
However, some jurists are of the opinion that sweat could be najis
in two cases:
38. a. A person may get
into a state of janabah by way of committing an unlawful sexual
intercourse. Some jurists have ruled that the sweat of such a person
is najis. However, we believe that it is tahir. That
said, it is advisable, as a matter of ihtiyat mustahab,
not to say prayer with the clothes that were exposed to the sweat.
39. b. Should an animal
get used to feeding on excrement, its sweat is najis so is its
urine, especially camels. We espouse such an opinion and advise, as a
matter of ihtiyat wujubi, that it be advocated.
The ruling passed on such an animal remains in force until it is
weaned from feeding on excrement for some time and revert to feeding
naturally. That is, during its rehabilitation period, its meat remains
haraam and so does its body wastes, including sweat.
that Become Najis
Tahir water could become najis
on contact with a najis matter. This has been discussed in
detail in the Chapter on Water, paras. (8)onward.
Things tahir, other than water, could become najis too
on contact with a najis matter.
40. a. Liquid najasah, such as urine or blood, getting into
contact with a solid object, such as garment, earth, or body, renders
the object najis. However, only the point of contact becomes najis.
41. b. Should the aforesaid najasah
find its way to a tahir liquid, such as milk, the najasah
permeates the entirety of the liquid, i.e. it all becomes najis.
With reference to both the examples, we have to stress that the
difference between the liquid and solid objects is not confined to the
surface area of the liquid which becomes najis, but the depth
too. Whereas the najasah remains localized when contacting a
solid thing unless it penetrates the object, the najasah, which
finds its way to the liquid, turns it all into najis.
Certain things may have dual
existence. For example, honey could be set or liquid. Should it come
into contact with the najasah while in a set form the rule
discussed in para. (40.a.) has to be applied. If it is liquid, the
rule discussed in para. (40.b. ) should be applied.
The parameters for determining the
material as having liquid properties are:
1. Its liquidity should contain some
sort of moistness similar to that of water. Thus, molten gold does not
fit this definition; accordingly, it is treated in the same way as any
other solid object, such as clothes or wood, contacting a source of najasah,
in that only the point of impact becomes najis.
2. The texture should be so liquid that
if you scoop some of it, it immediately levels up. If the texture is
so thick that if you scoop some of it, the rest of the material is not
capable of filling in the gap quickly, it cannot be called liquid,
rather, it is set. Insofar as najasah is concerned, the ruling
here is identical to that applied to clothes and furnishings; thus,
when blood comes into contact with the material in question only the
point of impact becomes najis.
42. c. The source of najasah
could be dry, such as dry blood or pig’s hair. Should it come into
contact with a substance that is liquid, the entire liquid turns najis.
43. d. Both the najis and the tahir things could be dry.
Should they come into contact with one another, the ruling depends
largely on the dryness and wetness of both of them. For example, if
both were dry, no najasah should creep into the tahir
thing on impact; also the tahir object would not be najis
if it came into contact with the source of najasah, should
there be slight wetness of the type that does not spread; if, however,
one or both the objects were moist with the type of moisture that
spreads on contact, the point of impact of the tahir object
would become najis.
In short, the spread of najasah
from any source to the tahir object depends on two main
factors, the first is the contact and the second the presence of
44. If, according to the aforesaid
cases, a tahir object became najis and the latter came
into contact with another tahir object, would it render it najis,
and how far would the chain of najasah go on?
A. The tahir object becomes najis, if it meets with the najasah
directly, or through a second medium only, i.e. if there were more
than one medium, no najasah would befall the tahir
It is noteworthy, though, that if the first medium, which turned najis,
was liquid, it affects the second medium and turns it najis
too. If it was solid, it would turn it najis as well, as a
matter of obligatory precaution. That is, there is no difference
between the liquid and the solid second object, in that they are both
affected by the najasah. The third object should not be
rendered najis in all circumstances.
1. Suppose the floor of a room became najis.
On walking with wet feet on the floor, your feet became najis.
You stepped on a rug while your feet were still wet. In the final
analysis, your feet were najis, as a matter of obligatory
precaution, because there is only one medium, of the solid type, that
separates them from the original najasah, i.e. the floor. As
for the rug, it should not be najis because there are two media
separating it from the original najasah, i.e. the floor and the
feet, and none of which is liquid.
2. Najis water was spilt on the
floor. Suppose you stepped on the floor while it was still wet.
Needless to say that the floor has become najis as a result of
the secondary source of najasah of the liquid type. Two media
separates your najis feet, i.e. the liquid water and the floor.
However, although your
feet is separated by two media, they are ruled najis , because
one of them is a liquid.
Dealing with Doubting the Spread of Najasah
45. In the event of doubting the spread, or otherwise, of najasah
to a tahir object, you should not pay attention if you did not
know whether or not the original source was najis. However, you
should be able to ascertain that original source had become najis
on contact by adopting the following legal criteria:
a. The availability of a tangible
b. The testimony of a trusted person…
Whether the tahir object was in their possession or not is
c. The testimony of the owner of the
object. Should they say that it was najis, it should be treated
as such, regardless of the way they acquired the object, even if it
was maghsoub; Of no effect too is their being adult or close to
adulthood, and untrustworthy.
46. The persons may be in a position to
tell that the tahir object could have come into contact with a najis
object, yet they are not sure that wetness was involved. In this case,
they should assume it is tahir. Moreover, even if they knew
that either or both objects had some sort of wetness and that when the
contact between them took place while there was no wetness, they
should assume the object is tahir.
Conversely, the person should conclude,
either directly or indirectly - through legal proof, that the object
became najis as a result of the presence of wetness at the time
47. In the event of doubt arising about
najasah taking place, it is not obligatory that the person
should enquire or check. They should regard the suspected object as tahir
until proven otherwise, i.e. either directly or indirectly. Even if,
after checking, they think that najasah had occurred, they
should not rely on this until they become absolutely certain that najasah
did really occur.
Rules Concerning Najasah
Among the rules governing najasah
Shari’a has stipulated are the following:
a. Taharah is a Condition for Performing Prayer
48. The most important of these rules
is that both the body and the clothes of the worshipper, intending to
perform compulsory or voluntary prayer, must be tahir. The same
should be observed when performing precautionary ruku and the
parts of prayer that have been missed. However, taharah is not
a condition for performing sajdatay-as-sahu, adhan, iqamah, or
supplication after prayer. Yet, one should observe taharah
There are though exceptions to saying prayer with najasah;
these will be discussed in para. (75) and thereafter.
Accordingly, if any part of the
person’s body or clothes becomes najis, they should hasten to
render it tahir again or change it and wear another garment
that is tahir.
49. Should the body or parts thereof
become najis and means for rendering it tahir were not
available, prayer should be said there and then. This is so because
prayer cannot be waived for any reason. However, one should use
whatever water available to render all the parts, or some of them,
that were affected by najasah, tahir where possible.
The same should apply to the clothes, especially where there is no
other garment available to perform prayer with.
50.Where najasah affects both
the body and clothes, rendering the body tahir should take
precedence over clothes.
51. Should the najasah be found
in two places of either your clothes or body, and there be not enough
water to clean both, the bigger affected spot must be cleaned first.
If they were of the same magnitude, the choice of cleaning either is
52. Should not there be enough water
for performing both the wudhu and removing the najasah
from one’s body, removing the najasah should come first; tayammum
should be the alternative. This has already been discussed in para. (
11)of the Chapter on Tayamum.
53. Suppose a person has two garments
and one of which became najis. However, it was not feasible to
tell which one was tahir. What should they do?
A. Praying with either is not good enough, unless it is rendered clean
and tahir. If not, prayer must be performed twice, one with
each of the two garments.
54. Whoever knowingly perform prayer
while their body or clothes are najis, the prayer is batil.
This is so,even if they
were unaware that taharah, of both the body and clothes, is
conditional to saying prayer.
55. A person may have said prayer in
the belief that he was in a state of taharah. After he has
finished prayer, he could trace some najasah; he needs not
worry, in that his prayer is in order and that he is not required to
repeat it, even if there was still time for saying it.
Indeed, neither the knowledge of the
person that he was tahir when he embarked on the prayer, nor
the belief that he took necessary action to restore taharah to
the affected area/s prior to prayer, have any bearing on the end
result, as outlined in the preceding paragraph.
Furthermore, a person may harbor a
doubt that either his body or clothes were najis. He then
concludes that they were tahir in the light of the preceding
para. (47). If, after having said prayer, he found out that he was najis,
he needs not worry for his prayer shall be deemed valid.
56. Should a person be aware that
either his body or clothes were najis, and forgot about it and
said prayer, such a prayer is batil. If he remembers while
there is still time for prayer, he should hasten to perform it;
otherwise, he should say it by way of qadha’.
57. While praying, a person realized
that the clothes he was wearing were najis, even before
embarking on prayer. His prayer is batil; accordingly he should
cut it short, render his clothes tahir and resume prayer.
However, should the person be aware,
while performing prayer, that his clothes were najis before
embarking on prayer, yet he was not aware of this when he embarked on
it, he should, time permitting and as a matter of obligatory ihtiyat,
resume prayer with taharah.
58. Should the person who becomes aware during prayer that his clothes
were najis before he started prayer, he must, if time was short
for repeating it, hasten to clean or change his clothes while
performing prayer. That said, he should observe the decorum of prayer;
otherwise, he should continue his prayer with the najis
clothes. However, in both cases, it is mustahab, as a matter of
ihtiyat, to perform prayer by way of qadha’.
59. a. While praying a person’s body
or clothes may become najis. Should he know of the incident, he
must hasten to restore taharah to the affected part of his body
or clothes or change the latter and resume prayer.
b. If this is not feasible due to, for
example, doing that which invalidates prayer, such as talking or
creating a long gap, he should cut short their prayer, restore taharah
and start afresh.
c. If either action is not possible for
fear of prayer’s time running out, even for one ruka’a, he
should carry on with the prayer, which will then be deemed valid.
However, where time is available even for just one ruka’a, it
is obligatory, on the person offering the prayer to resort to one of
the two courses of action in (a)and (b), circumstances permitting, to
guarantee that one ruka’a falls within the appointed time of
60. The same must be applied in the
event of a person realizing, during prayer, that najasah has
contaminated either their his body or clothes, without his being able
to pin point the actual time of najasah occurring, i.e. before
prayer or after starting it. He should conclude that it occurred
b. The spot of Sujood has to be Tahir
61. It is a prerequisite that the spot where you place your forehead
for prostration in prayer - i.e. that area where the actual contact
with the forehead takes place - be it earth, paper, wood, etc., has to
be tahir .
62. If performing sujood
on something tahir is not feasible, doing so on something not tahir
63. Should a person realize, after
having finished his prayer, that he performed sujood on
something not tahir, his prayer shall be in order, i.e. he does
not have to repeat it. The same applies if the mistake is discovered
immediately after lifting the head from sujood.
64. Eating or drinking najis
things or substances is not allowed; this will be elaborated later on.
However, there may be a case for making use of them outside the remit
of prayer, food, and drink.
65. Liquid substances that become najis
can be sold and bought so long as they can be of use from a Shari’a
perspective as well as custom. An example of this is oil used for
As for non-liquid based objects/substances, which may become najis,
there is no doubt that it is permissible to trade in them, for the
simple reason that taharah can be restored to them.
Things that are inherently najis cannot be traded in. For
example, you cannot sell alcohol; and although you can sell pigs to
non-Muslims, who allow their consumption, shying away from it, as a
matter of ihtiyat, is advisable. It is not permissible to trade
in dogs, unless they are trained for hunting, for example. It is
permissible to trade in other things so long as there is benefit in
That said, it is permissible to trade in other types of merchandise,
provided that they have legitimate benefits.
of Defiling Mosques
66. Desecrating any mosque is not
allowed. If found, any najasah should be removed immediately,
as a matter of wajib kifa’ie.
Not permissible too is bringing inside the mosque articles, or
animals, that are inherently najis, such as dogs.
67. The extent of non-permissibility of
any act of sacrilege covers the mosque’s floor, walls, and all
building material and fittings, such as windows and doors; furnishings
and the pulpit. Other fixtures and chattel that have been donated to
the mosque by way of endowment covenant are also covered. However, the
obligation, by way of wajib kifa’ie, to restore taharah
to the defiled places is confined to the building structure, i.e. it
does not extend to the fixtures, fittings, and other items of movable
68. Should the mosque or its contents
become najis by the action of a particular person, he must
hasten to render the place tahir again, because they have more
responsibility for rectifying the situation. However, this does not
waive the public duty (wajib kifa’ie ) of the others.
69. The rules pertaining to the
defiling of mosques so far discussed apply to the holy shrines.
70. Also, it is not permissible to
desecrate the Holy Qur’an. Should it become najis, one should
hasten to remove the najasah from its print, paper, and cover.
Saying Prayer While Still Bearing Najasah
A person performing prayer is allowed to bear the following types of najasah
71. a. Blood and pus resulting from
cuts and ulcers. Although they are najis, yet you can say
prayer with the presence of such najasah so long as the injury
has not healed. There is no limit to the quantity of such blood or
pus, and irrespective of its source, i.e. be it in an exposed area of
the body or an internal injury or ailment.
The license to overlook such blood is
predicated on the difficulty to remove the source of najasah or
changing one’s clothes. The yardstick of determining this is what is
widely believed as difficult and untenable. If there was such a
consensus, even the odd one who can manage to change their clothes to tahir
ones without difficulty cannot be allowed to do so.
However, it is not obligatory on the
person posed with such a problem to take necessary steps to stop the
blood or pus spreading to their clothes so long as this type of najasah
is allowed. Ointments and other medications used in the recovery
process, as well as sweat, are covered by the same ruling.
Should doubt about the nature of any
blood found on the body or clothes arise, it is obligatory to render
the affected place tahir.
A person may not be in a position to tell whether the injury or
ulceration in their body had healed. What should they do if they still
detect oozing of blood or pus produced in an infected wound in the
A. They should assume that the injury is still unhealed; accordingly,
they are not obliged to render the affected area tahir, until
they are absolutely certain that the injury has completely healed.
72. b. Any area stained with blood
which is less than the size of one dirham shari’i (the square area
of one part of an average male’s index finger) is allowed in, i.e.
without removing it, provided that it fulfills the following
1. The blood should not be that of a
dog or a pig that are inherently najis.
2. It should not be that of an animal
whose flesh is not allowed for consumption, such as
a hawk, as a matter of ihtiyat.
3. It should not be that of haydh,
istihadha, or nifas.
4. It should not be that of an
animal’s dead corpse.
Should the stains of blood spread over a wider area of the person who
is performing prayer, the total area should be the yardstick, in that
the stains must be added up; if in total, they be equal to the size of
dirham shari’i, it must be concluded that they are not allowed;
should the total be less, prayer can be accepted.
Suppose that the little blood, which is
less than the quantity, allowed by law penetrated to the other side of
the garment or to another piece of clothing, what would the worshipper
A. If the penetration was confined to
only one garment, it is allowed. Should it spread to a second garment,
the total area of the stains on both the garments should be taken into
account; if both the stains reach the target of dirham shari’i,
prayer is not allowed with such soiled clothes. This is so,
irrespective of whether the secondary staining occurred to a separate
garment or to the lining of the original garment. Should a little
amount of water become najis as a result of blood finding its
way to it, and a drop of this water turned najis and soiled the
clothes of a person performing prayer, they are not allowed to say
prayer with the soiled clothes, even if it was less than the area of a
dirham shari’i. This is so because the license is confined to blood.
In the event of doubt arising about the
size of the stain as to whether or not it amounts to the level
allowed, prayer should be in order irrespective. This is so, even if
the person concerned found out to the contrary after they have
finished their prayer, in that they are not required to repeat it,
albeit there was still time for saying it afresh.
73. c. Najis items of clothing
and jewelry, of the sizes which are not capable of covering one’s
private parts, such as socks, head cap, ring, bracelet can be worn
during prayer. However, the following clothing items are exempt of
1. Garments, such as those made of a
dead corpse’s hide.
2. Garments soiled with the body waste
of an animal whose flesh is not allowed for consumption, especially
where the najasah can still be seen. The same goes for the
garment hosting parts of such an animal. Prayer performed with such
soiled items of clothing is batil, not only because of the najasah
but also for the necessity to remove the waste and parts of those
animals from the clothes.
3. Garments made of the hair of such
forbidden animals such as dog and pig cannot be worn during prayer.
Indeed, prayer said with the worshipper wearing any garment made of,
say, the fur of a wolf, whose flesh is not halal to eat, cannot
74. d. Things that are carried during
prayer which could be either soiled with najasah or are
As for the article soiled with najasah,
it is covered by the allowance, and thus a person is allowed to carry
it in prayer. This is so, even if it was of the type with which can be
performed, such as a big handkerchief, let alone that which prayer
cannot be performed with.
That which is inherently najis can also be tolerated, even if
it was part of a dead carcass, provided that carrying it would not
entail its coming into direct contact with the worshipper’s body or