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A Summary of the rituals of Hajj

According to the opinions of the religious Authority Sayyed Muhammad Hussein Fadlullah

Hajj is divided into three parts Umra is divided into two parts

1- Hajj -ut- Tamatu'

1- Umrat ut-Tamatu'

2- Hajj al-Qiran

2- Al-Umra al-Mufrada

3- Hajj al_Ifrad


The Mukalaf's duty towards these parts differs according to his location. (how near or far he is from Mecca), as follows.

1- First, Those who are near Mecca, less than 88 kms away .

2- Second: Those who live far from Mecca (more than 88 kms).

The first group should perform Hajj al-Qiran, Hajj al-Ifrad and Umra Al-Mufrada.

While the second group should perform, Hajj ut-Tamatu' and Umrat at Tamatu'.


a) The First Duty: Ihram

Umrah cannot be preformed without Ihram, which is done in the following manner:

1) Men should take off their ordinary clothes and wear the two garments of ihram, one like a sarong and the other as a cover for the shoulder and the upper body.

2) The pilgrim should make niyyah to perform Umrat-ut-Tamatu’. It is recommend to say: I perform Ihram for, Umrat-ut-Tamatu’ as part of Hajjatul Islam...

3) The pilgrim should then chant talbiyah in Arabic , i.e. (Labayka Allahumma labayk, Labayka La Sharika Laka Labayk) . It is recommendable that he should add Ina Alhamada Wnnimata Laka Walmulk .La Sharika Laka Labayk

4) Once they (men and women) perform Ihram , they are barred from doing certain things; these are:

a. Hunting animals.

b. Sexual enjoyment, be it through intercourse, caressing, or kissing…

c. Smelling perfume and flowers scent and eating what has a nice smell that is added to food .

d. Beautification.

e. Looking into a mirror, for beautification purposes .

f. Wearing rings for beautification purposes .it is ok if one wears them to count or the ones that are recommendable to wear

g. Bleeding one’s body.

h. Swearing and committing fusouk which is committing any sin as a precaution .

i. Wrangling.

j. Killing insects found on humans, such as lice and fleas.

k. Applying any cream oil and the like to the body, except for medication.

l. Removing hair from the body.

m. Cutting nails.

n. Dipping the head into water, or liquids, as a matter of ihtiyat.

o. Carrying weapons.

p. Uprooting trees and shrubs in the vicinity of the Haram.

q. Wearing ordinary clothes; this is particularly not allowed for men.

r. Men should not wear shoes that cover the top of feet, and socks.

s. Covering the head; this is particularly forbidden for men.

t. Tadhleel (seeking shelter in the shade), i.e. of the kind, which accompanies the movement of the pilgrim. It is permissible to do so if one stays in the same place.

u. Covering the face ,even by putting a bag in front of it .

v. Wearing gloves for both men and women .

-It is not obligatory to perform Wudu or ablution for Ihram although it is recommend. Women in their period perform Ihram from outside the Mosque in the Miqat region.

-Ihram should be made from Miqat, by those who pass by it. Those who travel by plane could perform Ihram in Jeddah, although it is recommended that is performed in the Miqat near Mecca(Al-Jahfa)

-it is permissible for men to seek shelter at night unless it is raining as a necessary precaution while woman are allowed to do so day and night.

-It is permissible to use a sewn money belt or shoes. Provided that the shoe does not cover the whole front part of the foot.

b) The second duty: Tawaf

1- To perform Tawaf, wudu should be performed and ghosoul also if the pilgrim has big Hadath in that he should be physically purified (Taher from najasah) .

2- the Mukalaf should make niyyah to perform twaf either loudly or in his heart. The way to conduct tawaf is by standing beside the location of Hajaril Aswad, taking into account that the Ka’ba is on the worshipper’s left and guided by a brown line on the ground that leads to the Black stone , and circumambulate the Kaa’ba seven times, starting each round from Hajaril Aswad and ending it there.

-It is enough to perform tawaf as the rest of people, and it is not necessary to make sure that pilgrim’s shoulder is to the left of Kaa’ba .

-Pushing around or touching the wall of Kaa’ba does not render the tawaf invalid (batil) nor does the touching of the Kabah wall or Hijr Ismail.

-It is not obligatory to perform tawaf between The Kaa’ba and the Shrine of Prophet Ibrahim (a.s.).It could be performed outside it as long as it is continuous.

If one doubts the number of times, he should repeat all of it, except if the doubt is between the seventh and eighth round at the Black Stone ( hajar al aswad).

-One could rely on his companion’s count of rounds, even if he himself doubts.

c) The third duty: prayer

This prayer consists of two ruku’s, i.e. similar to subh. The pilgrims have the choice of reciting audibly or inaudibly. They should endeavour, after 7 rounds of tawaf, to choose a place that is behind, but close to Maqam Ibrahim. Should this not be feasible, performing prayer in any place in the Mosque could be sanctioned, provided that it is behind the Maqam, not ahead of it.

If the pilgrim doubts the number of ruku’ , his prayer would be invalid, but if he is not certain ,but believes that he has performed a certain number, he should act as if he is certain of this number.

It is recommended that the pilgrim would go after prayer and drink water from the well of Zamzam.

d) The fourth duty : sa’y between Safa and Marwah.

Making niyyah of qurbah (in one’s mind) for sa’y between Safa and Marwah (Taharah is not a condition necessary for this duty )The worshipper must set out walking briskly from Safa ( a small mountain over viewing Mecca)to Marwah finishing one round and then back finishing the second that is four times from Safa to Marwah and three times from Marwah to Safa; thus the end of sa’y should be at Marwah.

One could look around or talk during the sa'y although it is better to avoid any thing that can make one be distracted.

e) The fifth obligation: taqseer

Once sa’y is completed, taqseer, of Umrat-ut-Tamatu’, becomes due. Clipping some of one’s hair or beard would do; this does not have to be in a particular place though. It can be done even at home

- Cutting the hair is not allowed as a substitute.

_ It is not allowed for one who has not performed taqseer to do it for others, though , they would have performed their duty, if he did.


The duties of Hajj-ut-Tamatu’:


This should be undertaken in exactly the same way it was done in Umrat-ut-Tamatu’. The only difference is the niyyah; niyyah of qurbah here should be made for Hajj-ut-Tamatu’.

The place for this ihram is Makkah, and the better one is the old Mekkah; However, the best place for ihram is the holy mosque

2-Wuquf at Arafat.

Its time is from midday of the ninth of Thil Hijjah till the sunset in the same day,

Having assumed ihram, the pilgrim has to be present at Arafat at midday on the ninth of Thil Hijjah till sunset.. That said, in no way can the pilgrim leave Arafat prematurely, i.e. before sunset.

_Bathing (gusul) is recommended after sunset, as well as reciting as much supplications as possible.

3-. Wuquf at Muzdelifah.

to be present at Muzdelifah (Mash’ar) during the period from dawn till sunrise on the 10th of Zulhijja, the day of the eid\

Women elderly and the sick can instead spend part of the night . Men who accompany them can return to perform the duty at the said time , unless they have to stay with the women.

- It recommended to collect stones from Muzdelifah. to throw them on the next day. It is also recommended to collect them from high places. One has to collect at least 49 stones

4- Rami of Jamratil Aqabah.

Between sunset and sunrise is the time span this duty can be carried out; it has to be done with seven stones thrown consecutively, i.e. not at one go.

The stones should fell in the basin and it could he thrown by either the right hand or the left hand.

_ Those who were permitted to stay at Muzdelifah would be allowed to throw at night.

5- Hady

. It is the sacrificial animal offered by the pilgrim after completing rami . The animal should not be sick pr skinny. And the pilgrim does not have to slaughter it himself. It should be done after rami and not before it .

6-. Shaving/Taqseer.

It should not be done before hadi or rami , but if the pilgrim has chosen the animal he wants to sacrifice ,he is allowed to do taqseer

It is obligatory on male pilgrims, not females, to perform taqseer or shave their head, taqseer is not obligatory in hujjat Al-islam , although it is better .

By "shaving", we mean shaving the entire head; shaving, not necessarily by uprooting the hair, i.e. by using a machine, can be sanctioned; by "taqseer", we mean clipping some hair or cutting the nails.

Once these obligations have been fulfilled, the pilgrims are relieved of their ihram and can resume the things they were denied during the period of ihram, except for wearing perfume, the company of women, and hunting. After that, they should head for Makkah to do the following:

7-Duties in Mecca:

a. Tawaf of Hajj, which is similar to that of Umrat-ut-Tamatu’, except for niyyah.

b. Prayer of tawaf, which is again similar to that of Umrat-ut-Tamatu’, [except for niyyah].

c. Sa’y between Safa and Marwah, which is similar to that of Umrat-ut-Tamatu’, except for niyyah.

d. Tawafun Nisa’ and its prayer, which are similar to those of Umrat-ut-Tamatu’, except for niyyah. This applies to both the sexes.

Once Hajj, its prayer, and sa’y are over and done with, wearing perfume becomes lawful. With tawafun nisa’ completed, sexual union between man and wife can resume.

- These obligations, i.e. starting with tawaf of Hajj and ending with tawafun nisa’ and its prayer, can be embarked on the tenth or the eleventh of Thil Hijjah. The worshippers are free, though, to delay it beyond these dates, provided that they are performed during the month of Thil Hijjah.

- Those who are afraid from getting sick ,or find it difficult to perform tawaf on the day of eid could do tawaf before going to Arafat , but they have to perform Ihram, since it is a necessary condition for tawaf.

8-Staying at Mina

The pilgrim is required to stay overnight in Mina on the nights of the eleventh and twelfth of Thil Hijjah. "Staying overnight" means presence in Mina from either the evening till midnight or from midnight till dawn. Midnight is the point in the middle of sunset and dawn .

Those who stay in Mecca to perform other hajj duties or worship, are allowed not to stay in Mina , provided that the entire time is spent in worship although taking a little time for eating is permissible.

9-Rami: On the day of the eleventh, the pilgrim must perform rami of the three jamarat one after the other, i.e. the first, the middle, and Jamratil Aqabah – this could be done either in the morning or in the afternoon. A repeat of rami should be undertaken on the day of the twelfth. Come the afternoon of the twelfth, the pilgrim is free to leave Mina, having thus fulfilled all the obligations required of him

10- Ifada When the pilgrim throws the stones on the second day he should stay is Mina until midday and not before that.


Hajj al-Qiran

It is the same as Hajj Al-Ifrad with the difference that the pilgrim has to take the hadi with him from the moment he performs ihram , until he slaughters it in Mina . The Ihram could be made either by Talbiya or by Ishaar and taqlid which are explained in detail in the books about Hajj.


Hajj Al-Ifrad

it is called so because it is separable from Imrah. The pilgrim will perform Ihram for Hajj right away . It is different than hajj attamatu in that Hadi is not obligatory > and ther pilgrim is allowed to perform Ihram from the known Miqats, Jeddah , Adna Alhill or even In Mecca .


Umra Mufrada

It differs from Umra At-tamatu in that shaving or taqseer can be performed after Sa’y , and that one has to perform tawaf Annisa afterwards.

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