There are a few lessons to be learned from these human examples:
1. Freedom of belief vs. freedom of willpower
The above-quoted Quranic verses stress the fact that man has absolute
freedom in what he wants to believe in and what he wants to embark on or
abandon. God has created him and granted him the freedom and will to
think independently. Man should translate this freedom into solid belief,
faith, determination and good deeds. He is, though, not free to surrender
his freedom to others under the pretext that he could fall under their
influences, be they moral or material. It is noteworthy that however
powerful others may be, their means of exerting pressure to sway man from
what he thinks right shall not exceed temptation, harassment and threats.
These tactics may pay off in weakening one’s resolve, which may lead to
surrender. Yet, man is capable of putting up a determined defense to
resist the tactics of the carrot and stick with the intellectual power,
conviction, and willpower God has endowed him with. In this regard, one
can draw on the strength of the prophetic Messages.
God has created man and granted him the freedom
and will to think independently. Man should translate this freedom
into solid belief, faith, determination and good deeds.
Man has to answer for his own actions before God, especially if he
takes leave of his senses and forgets about his message in life.
Likewise, there will be no excuse if he falls victim to his own desires,
inclinations, and frailties, or yields to tyrants, oppressors, and those
who lost their way.
As for external pressure and coercion, to which the soul remains
indisposed and with which the heart does not feel at ease, they have no
bearing on the question of responsibility. In those circumstances man
would not be free to do what he likes, although he is free to reject what
he does not like notionally. As such, the underlying principle of freedom
in Islam is that man has a natural right to freedom of choice. However,
whether he would, in practice, be able to exercise his freedom without
constraints or pressure is a different matter.
2. The spectacle of the arrogant people
The picture the Holy Quran depicts of the arrogant people is not only
one that describes their situation at the Day of Judgment, especially the
destiny that would await them there and the trauma they would go through.
It is a kind of analytical study of their mindset. That is, the way they
conduct themselves with other people, and how they feel a sense of
superiority and authority. Their relations with others are usually based
on a master/slave analogy. They feel that they are not responsible,
either morally or lawfully, for the actions of the people who follow them
and serve their whims. Denying any relationship with, or any extended
responsibility for, the actions of their subordinates is a tactic
intended to save their own skin.
The Holy Quran wants to paint the same picture for those people in
this life, for the life hereafter is a reflection of this one.
Resurrection will not happen in a different form or thought. Rather, man,
in his original copy, will be summoned to appear at the Day of Judgment
before the Almighty to answer for his actions in this life, thus: “But
those who were blind in this world, will be blind in the hereafter, and
most astray from the Path” (17: 72).
If this is their situation in this life, how could man trust them here
or in the hereafter, so long as they have such a mentality, one that
makes them abdicate responsibility at the first warning of danger.
3. Practical approach
In the thick of ideological and social struggle, where we face
multi-faceted exploitative practices of the arrogant elite, especially
its subjugation of the weaker sections of society, we should always call
to mind the previous two points. We should always bear in mind that the
forces of condescension seek to use the poor and naive for their own
wicked ends, not least unbelief, misguidance, aggression, and fighting
the truth in the name of justice. Yet in no time they tend to absolve
themselves of any responsibility: “(Their allies
deceived them), like the Evil One, when he says to man, ‘Deny God’: but
when (man) denies God, (the Evil One) says, ‘I am free of thee: I do fear
God, the Lord of the Worlds!’” (59: 16).
The approach to the process of calling to mind and exposing the
practices of the forces of arrogance should be to rouse a sense of
freedom and individual responsibility. Exposing the practices of the
arrogant people towards those who are deemed weak could be one such
approach. Raising awareness among the ranks of the disadvantaged group,
with a view to making them reconsider their subservience to the
privileged one, could be another. This is particularly so, in the light
of the impending punishment that is in store for them should they not
mend their ways.
Perhaps this was the rationale behind depicting the scenes of the Day
of Judgment ahead of time. Maybe it is meant to make people get prepared
for that Day in advance and in ample time, because both lives are
reflections of one another. The other point that needs pondering is the
nature of the relationship between the two groups and how each one should
face up to its own responsibility when they are called to book.
We reckon that taking the disenfranchised group under the wing of
Islamic activism, providing its members with the political, social, and
spiritual awareness through the realities of life, and strengthening
their spirit of faith, is capable of extending and solidifying the base
of Islamic activism in people’s lives. This should be with the aim of
developing and bettering the life of man by building a better system.
The Inmates of Hellfire in a Squabble
First vs. last
In the same context, i.e. every human is responsible for his/her own
actions; the Holy Quran presents another group of people whose members
mimic one another without elements of weakness or strength. That is, the
factors of weakness or strength, as was the case with the weak and
arrogant groups of people, are not in play here. It seems these groups
have a number of considerations in common. It could be one or more of the
following: geography, language, economic ties, and a new generation
following in the footsteps of an old one, mainly because the existing
generation feels strongly about what they see as sacred about their
This is how the Holy Quran depicts the scene and dialogue:
Who is more unjust than one who invents a lie against God or
rejects His Signs? For such, their portion appointed must reach them
from the Book (of Decrees): until, when our messengers (of death)
arrive and take their souls, they say: “Where are the things that ye
used to invoke besides God?” They will reply, “They have left us in
the lurch,” And they will bear witness against themselves, that they
had rejected God. He will say: “Enter ye in the company of the
peoples who passed away before you – men and jinn, – into the Fire.”
Every time a new people enters, it curses its sister-people (that
went before), until they follow each other, all into the Fire. Says
the last about the first: “Our Lord! It is these that misled us: so
give them a double penalty in the Fire.” He will say: “Doubled for
all”: but this ye do not understand. Then the first will say to the
last: “See then! No advantage have ye over us; so taste ye of the
penalty for all that ye did!” (7: 37–39)
These holy verses present the situation in two scenes:
1. The unbelievers and God’s messengers of death.
Before taking their spirits, the angels of death take them to task:
Where are those whom you used to call upon to the exclusion of God? Let
them come to your rescue in this dire situation, should they possess any
of the divine power or authority.
The answer comes tinged with disappointment that reveals a sense of
total loss: They are nowhere. We are left in a limbo. Thus, there is no
hope for any escape, nor is there are any denying the fact that they
admitted their unbelief. There they are alone before God to answer for
their crimes. The curtains are drawn on this scene, leaving us, judging
by the general atmosphere, with the conclusion that the mission was over
and that the perpetrators were on their way to the final abode.
2. The offenders in hellfire
A yell comes from the direction of God, ordering those unbelievers
to march to hellfire to face the same destiny that previous groups of
both the human race and jinn have already faced. Amid the clamor, we hear
the newly convicted criminals trading insults and recriminations with the
previously convicted ones. The mutual acrimony, rage, and bitterness
between yesterday’s fraternities of unbelief are self-evident. They seem
to have nothing except for apportioning blame and hopelessly distancing
themselves from one another.
There we are before the spectacle of the cries and fury of a people
who feel let down, rightly or wrongly, in a bid to ameliorate the shock
they feel by trying to lay the blame on others.
A sort of indirect argument starts in earnest. The newly arrived group
turns to God, beseeching Him to increase the suffering of the first
arrivals because they maintain that they were responsible for leading
Another shout is heard from the direction of God: Each one of you will
get a double share of torment. This is because those who passed away
before you went astray and helped you follow them in error. As for you,
you too went astray and helped them carry out their plan in misleading
you, not least by responding to the call of the leaders among them.
And yet, you do not know the nature of the torment so that you can
comprehend how it will be doubled. Scornfully, the first group says to
the last one: You have done us no favors. We are all responsible for the
vile deeds we have done.
The curtain is thus drawn on the final scene in the story for another
chapter to begin, where man has already learned a lesson to put to use in
his life, so that he can avoid the same fate, at the Day of Judgment, of
those people whose lot was degradation, shame, and torture.
The offenders will get double shares of torment in the hellfire
because they went astray and committed crimes.
We should discern the moral of this situation, which God has played
for us before the time of its actual occurrence so that we are mindful
not to fall into the same trap those people fell in, by taking stock of
the situation, especially the following:
1. Rejecting submissiveness
In this regard, we should reiterate what we have already mentioned,
i.e. one must reject subservience in matters of doctrine, practice, and
position taking. That is, it is fundamental that one should be
independent in arriving at one’s own convictions because any
justification for not doing so by virtue of falling under the sway of
others is just not a good enough reason for ducking the responsibility
and eventually bearing the consequences in this life and the hereafter.
2. Evil doctrine incapable of maintaining spiritual unison
Maintaining ties between individuals and groups on the basis of
malevolent doctrines or evil conduct is not a guarantee for the spiritual
and moral unity that could make those individuals and groups empathize
with one another and willingly bear the consequences of their
responsibility. This is simply because deviation is not governed by
ideology; rather, it is based, in the main, on narrow self-interests and
emotional relations. This is bound to make people abandon one another in
adversity. The result would then be recriminations, apportioning blame,
and trying to pin the responsibility on the other party.
3. Studying people’s position taking
The workers in the way of God Almighty are urged to study deeply
atheistic and devious tendencies, which appear to have listening ears
within our Muslim societies. They should also study what political clout
or military or economic power these trends can wield that might attract
people’s fascination and eventually cause them to fall under their sway.
A third element could be the material temptation that the proponents of
these trends can exercise, which might find its way into the hearts and
minds of people who could easily be recruited to their cause. This could
happen to people without their giving the invasive ideologies due
consideration, i.e. whether they are good or bad. However, in order to
justify their position, the people who embraced those trends could start
the process of soul-searching.
We should outpace the tendencies by not giving them the opportunity to
utilize unusual circumstances in sowing more misguidance. Raising
awareness among the masses can protect them from yielding to those
Studying those tendencies in detail should prove vital, especially if
we can put our fingers on the reasons and motives behind the attempts of
the proponents of those trends to push people into accepting them. This
should, though, be done away from pondering matters of right and wrong.
There and then, we could draw up a practical plan with the aim of
exposing the ulterior motives of those tendencies and confront the people
who fell prey to them with our findings. The position could then be
linked to the question of freedom, dignity, and independent judgment. It
could also be used as a spur to rekindle the ambers of belief in the
consciences of the deceived. We should also outpace those tendencies by
not giving them the opportunity to utilize unusual circumstances in
sowing more misguidance. Raising awareness among the masses can protect
them from yielding to those adverse circumstances.
Dwelling on the Quranic verses could provide some excellent lessons
that would make the position that has been taken a matter of destiny in
this life and the hereafter.
It could also prove valuable to make people aware of the ideological
as well as moral double standards between what they believe in and what
they practice, highlighting the negative aspects of their conduct. This
could provide them with food for thought to reflect on the double
standards they seem to be practicing. Dwelling on the Quranic verses
could provide some excellent lessons that would make the position that
has been taken a matter of destiny in this life and the hereafter. This
should, in turn, make man refrain from taking hasty decisions and avoid
paying lip service to, and being governed by, emotions in matters of
destiny. Submitting to such transient desires could be tolerated in
special insignificant cases. It is not acceptable in decisive matters
that have a bearing on this life and the hereafter.